Download UPSC, IAS Civil Services (Mains) Optional Subject “Anthropology” Exam Syllabus
:: Paper – I ::
1.1 Meaning, Scope and Development of Anthropology.
Anthropology Upsc Syllabus – 1.2 Relations with other disciplines: Social Sciences, Behavioral Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
1.3 Main Branches of Anthropology, their Scope and Relevance:
- (a) Socio-Cultural Anthropology.
- (b) Biological Anthropology.
- (c) Archaeological Anthropology.
- (d) Linguistic Anthropology.
1.4 Human Development and Emergence of Man:
- Biological and cultural factors in human development.
- Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).
- synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of the terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s law, Cope’s law, Gauss’s law, similarity, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).
1.5 Characteristics of primates; Evolutionary trends and primate taxonomy; primate adaptation; (arboreal and terrestrial) primate taxonomy; friendly behavior; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; living dominant primates; Comparative anatomy of humans and apes; Skeletal changes due to standing posture and its effects.
1.6 Species location, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following:( Anthropology Upsc Syllabus)
- Plio-Pleistocene hominids-Australopithecines in South and East Africa.
- Homo erectus: Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus (Heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis.
- Neanderthal Man-la-Chapelle-aux-Saint (classical type), Mount Carmel (progressive type).
- Rhodesian man.
- Homo Saoens- Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancellade.
1.7 Biological basis of life: cell, DNA structure and replication, protein synthesis, genes, mutation, chromosomes and cell division.
(a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. (Anthropology Upsc Syllabus) Chronology: Relative and absolute dating methods.
(B) Cultural Development-Broad Profile of Prehistoric Cultures:
- Copper-Bronze Age
- Iron Age
2.1 Nature of Culture: Concept and Characteristics of Culture and Civilization; Ethnicism compared to cultural relativism.
2.2 Nature of Society: Concept of Society; society and culture; social institutions; social group; and social stratification.
2.3 Marriage: Definition and Universality; rules of marriage (intermarriage, exogamy, supermarriage, under marriage, incest prohibited); Type of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, mass marriage). acts of marriage; Marriage Regulations (Preferential, Prescriptive and Prohibitive); Marriage payment (bride’s money and dowry).
2.4 Families: Definition and Universality; family, household and household groups; family functions; Types of family (from the point of view of composition, blood ties, marriage, residence and succession); The impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on the family.
2.5 Kinship: Consensus and Affinity; principles and types of descent (unilateral, double, bilateral hermaphrodite); forms of lineage groups (lineage, clan, fraternal, taun and kin); kinship terminology (descriptive and categorical); Descent, Filiation and Complementary Fillion; Decent and Alliance.
3. Economic Organization: Meaning, Scope and Relevance of Economic Anthropology; formalist and materialistic debate; principles governing production, distribution and exchange (mutualisation, redistribution and market) in communities, subsistence on hunting and gathering, fishing, sweding, pastoralism, horticulture and agriculture; (Anthropology Upsc Syllabus) Globalization and the indigenous economic system.
4. Political Organization and Social Control: Band, Tribe, Chieftain, State and State; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; Social control, law and justice in ordinary societies.
5. Religion: Anthropological Approach to the Study of Religion (Evolutionary, Psychological and Functional); monotheism and polytheism; holy and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animism, paganism, naturalism and totemism); Religion, magic and science distinguished; Magic-religious workers (priests, sorcerers, medicine men, sorcerers and witches).
6. Anthropological Theory:
(A) Classical Evolution (Tyler, Morgan and Fraser)
(B) Historical Specificism (Boas) Diffusionism (British, German and American)
(c) functionalism (Malinowski); Structural-Functionalism (Radcliffe-Brown)
(d) Structuralism (Lévi-Strauss and E. Leach)
(e) Culture and Personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Cardiner and Cora-du Bois)
(f) Neo-evolutionism (Child, White, Steward, Sahlins and Sewa)
(g) Cultural Materialism (Harris)
(h) Symbolic and Interpretive Theory (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
(i) Cognitive Theory (Tyler, Conklin)
(j) Postmodernism in Anthropology.
7. Culture, Language and Communication: (Anthropology Upsc Syllabus) Nature, Origin and Characteristics of Language; verbal and non-verbal communication; The social context of language use.
8. Methods of Discovery in Ray Anthropology:
(A) Fieldwork Tradition in Anthropology
(b) Distinction between technique, method and methodology
(c) Tools of data collection: observation, interview, programme, questionnaire, case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.
(d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
9.1 Human Genetics: Methods and Applications: Methods for the Study of Genetic Principles in Human-Family Studies (Ancestry Analysis, Twin Studies, Foster Children, Co-twin Methods, Cytogenetic Methods, romosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, (Anthropology Upsc Syllabus) immunological methods, DNA analysis. technology and recombinant technologies.
9.2 Mendelian genetics in human-familial studies, single factor, multifactorial, lethal, sublethal and polygenic inheritance in man.
9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; Causes and changes that reduce frequency—mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding, and genetic drift. Genetic effect of homozygous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, homozygous and cousin marriage.
9.4 Chromosomal and Chromosome Aberrations in Man, Function.
(a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
(b) Sex chromosomal aberrations- Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.
(c) Autosomal aberrations- Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cré-du-chat syndrome.
(d) Genetic imprinting in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome studies.
9.5 Race and casteism, non-metric and biological basis of morphological variation of Varnas. Racial traits in relation to racial norms, heredity and environment; The biological basis of racial classification, racial discrimination and race crossing in man.
9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic markers: ABO, Rh blood group, HLA HP, transfer, GM, blood enzymes. Physical characteristics- Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory function and sensory perceptions across different cultural and socio-economic groups. (Anthropology Upsc Syllabus)
9.7 Concepts and Methods of Ecological Anthropology: Biocultural Adaptation-Genetic and Non-genetic Factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climates.
9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and Disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases, diseases related to nutritional deficiency.
10. Concept of human growth and development: Stages of development- prenatal, prenatal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, old age.
• Factors affecting growth and development Genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic. (Anthropology Upsc Syllabus)
• Old age and old age. theory and observation
• Biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotype. Methods for development studies.
11.1 Relevance of Menarche, Menopause and Other Bio-Events to Fertility. Reproductive patterns and differences.
11.2 Demographic Theory-Biological, Social and Cultural.
11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fertility, fertility, birth and death rates.
12. Applications of Anthropology: Anthropology of Sports, Nutritional Anthropology, Anthropology in Defense and Design of Other Instruments, Forensic Anthropology, Methods and Principles of Personal Identification and Reconstruction, Applied Human Genetics – Paternity Diagnostics, Genetic Counseling and Eugenics, DNA Technology in Diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.
:: Paper – II ::
1.1 Development of Indian Culture and Civilization – Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic), Proto-historic (Indus Civilization). (Anthropology Upsc Syllabus) Pre-Harappan, Harappan and North Harappan cultures. Contribution of Tribal Cultures in Indian Civilization.
1.2 Palaeolithic – Anthropological evidence from India with special reference to the Shivaliks and Narmada basins (Rampithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).
1.3. Ethno-archaeology in India: Concept of ethno-archaeology; Survival and commonalities between hunting, pasture, fishing, pastoral and farming communities, including arts and crafts producing communities.
2. Demographic Profile of India – Ethnic and linguistic elements and their distribution in the Indian population. Indian Population- Factors influencing its composition and growth.
3.1 Structure and nature of traditional Indian social order- Varnashrama, Purushartha, Karma, Reena and Rebirth.
3.2 Caste System in India- Structure and Characteristics Varna and Jati, Principles of Origin of Caste System, Predominant Castes, Caste Dynamics, Future of Caste System, Jajmani System. Tribe-case continuity.
3.3 The Sacred Complex and the Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.
3.4. Influence of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity in Indian society.
4. Evolution, Growth and Development in India—Contributions of Scholar-Administrators of the 18th, 19th and Early 20th Centuries. I. Contribution of Indian Anthropologist to Tribal and Caste Studies.
5.1 Indian Villages—Importance of Village Studies in India; Indian village as a social system; Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; (Anthropology Upsc Syllabus) Agricultural relations in Indian villages; Effect of globalization on Indian villages.
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.
5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society: Sanskritisation, westernisation, modernisation; The interplay of small and great traditions; Panchayati Raj and Social Change; Media and social change.
6.1 Tribal Status in India – Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal population and their distribution.
6.2 Problems of tribal communities- land segregation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, low employment, health and nutrition.
6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on the problems of tribal displacement and resettlement. Forest policy and development of tribals. (Anthropology Upsc Syllabus) The impact of urbanization and industrialization on the tribal population.
7.1 Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Problems of exploitation and deprivation of tribes and other backward classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.
7.2 Social Change and Contemporary Tribal Society: Impact of Modern Democratic Institutions, Development Programs and Welfare Measures on Tribals and Weaker Sections.
7.3 Concept of ethnicity; ethnic conflict and political development; unrest in tribal communities; demand for regionalism and autonomy; Pseudo tribalism. Social changes among tribes during colonial and post-independence India.
8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.
8.2 Tribes and Nation States – Comparative Study of Tribal Communities in India and Other Countries.
9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programs of tribal development and their implementation. (Anthropology Upsc Syllabus) Concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programs for their development. Role of NGOs in tribal development.
9.2 Role of Anthropology in Tribal and Rural Development.
9.3 Contribution of Anthropology to the Understanding of Regionalism, Communalism and Ethnic and Political Movements