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Geography Optional UPSC Syllabus

Download UPSC, IAS Civil Services (Main) Optional Subject “Geography” Exam Syllabus

:: Paper – I ::

principles of geography

Physics Geography :

Geography Optional UPSC Syllabus – 1. Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenous and exogenous forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Basics of Geomagnetism; physical conditions of the Earth’s interior; geosync; Continental drift; isostasis; plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; (Geography Optional UPSC Syllabus) Volcano; earthquakes and tsunamis; concepts of geomorphic cycle and landscape development; denudation chronology; channel morphology; erosion surfaces; slope development; applied geomorphology; Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.

2. Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Earth’s heat budget; atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. planetary and local winds; monsoon and jet stream; air mass and fronto; temperate and tropical cyclones; (Geography Optional UPSC Syllabus) Types and distribution of precipitation; weather and climate; Köppen’s Thornthwaite and Trevor Thay’s classification of world climates; hydrological cycle; Global climate change, and man’s role and response to climate change. Applied Climatology and Urban Climate.

3. Oceanography: Lower topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; temperature and salinity of the oceans; heat and salt budgets, ocean deposits; waves, currents and tides; marine resources; biological, mineral and energy resources; coral reefs coral bleaching; sea ​​level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.

4. Biography: Origin of the soil; Soil classification and distribution; soil type; soil erosion, degradation and conservation;( Geography Optional UPSC Syllabus)  Factors affecting the world distribution of plants and animals; problems of deforestation and conservation measures; social forestry, agro-forestry; the wildlife; Major gene pool centers.

5. Environmental Geography: Theory of Ecology; human ecological adaptation; Ecology and the impact of man on the environment; global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; their management and conservation of ecosystems; environmental degradation, management and protection; Biodiversity and Sustainable Development; environmental policy; environmental hazards and remedial measures; environmental education and


human Geography :

1. Perspectives in Human Geography: Regional Differentiation; regional synthesis; dichotomy and dualism; environmentalism; Quantitative Revolution and Local Analysis; Radical, practical, human and welfare approach; Languages, religion and secularism; cultural regions of the world; human Development Index.

2. Economic Geography: World Economic Development: Measurements and Problems; world resources and their distribution; energy crisis; the extent of development; World Agriculture: (Geography Optional UPSC Syllabus) Typology of Agricultural Sectors; agricultural inputs and productivity; food and nutritional problems; food security; Famine: Causes, Effects and Treatment; World Industry: Location Patterns and Problems; World trade patterns.

3. Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and Distribution of World Population; demographic characteristics; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and-optimal population; Population Theory, World Population Problems and Policies, Social Welfare and Quality of Life; Population as social capital. (Geography Optional UPSC Syllabus) types and patterns of rural settlements; environmental issues in rural settlements; hierarchy of urban settlements; urban morphology; concept of primate city and rank-size rule; functional classification of towns; urban sphere of influence; rural-urban fringe; satellite town; Urbanization problems and remedies; Sustainable development of cities.

4. Regional Planning: The concept of a region; types of regions and methods of regionalization; Development Center and Development Pole; regional imbalance; regional development strategies; environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.

5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: Systems Analysis in Human Geography; Malthusian, Marxist and demographic transition models; Kristaller and Loch’s central place theory; Perroux and Baudeville; von Thunen’s model of agricultural space; Weber’s model of industrial location; The model of the stages of development of Ostov.( Geography Optional UPSC Syllabus)  Heart-land and Rimland principles; International boundaries and the law of boundaries.

:: Paper – II ::

Geography of India

1. Physical setting: India’s space relations with neighboring countries; structure and relief; drainage systems and watersheds; physical field; Mechanism of Indian monsoon and rainfall pattern; Tropical Cyclones and Western Disturbances; floods and droughts; climate zone; Natural vegetation, soil types and their distribution.

2. Resources: land, surface and groundwater, energy, minerals, biological and marine resources, forest and wildlife resources and their conservation; energy crisis.

3. Agriculture : Infrastructure: Irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, electricity; institutional factors; land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop composition, land potential; agriculture and socio-forestry; Green Revolution and its socio-economic and ecological impact; importance of dry farming; Livestock Resources and the White Revolution; aqua-culture; sericulture, agriculture and

poultry; agricultural regionalization; agro-climatic zone; agro-ecological zone.

4. Industry: Development of industries; local factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and first based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; industrial regionalization; new industrythat policy; MNCs and liberalization; special economic zone; Tourism including ecotourism.

5. Transport, Communication and Trade: Roads, Railways, Waterways, Airways and Pipeline Networks and their complementary roles in regional development; the increasing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; trade balance; trade policy, export processing sector; developments in communication and information technology and their impact on the economy and society; Indian space program

6. Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; racial, linguistic and ethnic diversity; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural area; growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic characteristics: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; Migration (inter-regional, inter-regional and international) and related problems; Population problems and policies; health indicator.

7. Settlements: types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban Development; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; metropolitan area and metropolitan area; urban sprawl; slums and associated problems; town planning; Urbanization problems and solutions.

8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of Regional Planning in India; five year plans; Integrated Rural Development Programme; Panchayati Raj and Decentralized Planning; command area development; watershed management; Planning for the development of backward areas, desert, drought prone, hilly tribal areas; multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.

9. Political Aspects: Geographical Basis of Indian Federalism; reorganization of the state; the emergence of new states; regional consciousness and interstate issues; India’s international border and related issues; cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and the Indian Ocean Region.

10. Contemporary Issues: Ecological Issues: Environmental Threats: Landslides, Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Floods and Droughts, Epidemics; issues related to environmental pollution; change in land use patterns; principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; population explosion and food security; environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; agricultural problems and

industrial unrest; regional disparities in economic development; Sustainable growth and development concept; environmental awareness; interlinking of rivers; Globalization and Indian Economy.

Ishika Sharma(Pen Name) is an author from Chattisgarh. She writes articles on Fashion, Lifestyles and beauty. You are invited to join her on https://Storyonyou.com.


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