What Is A Cell Biology give Definition – The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. Cells usually have the ability to reproduce. The shape, size and number of cells are different in plants and organisms.
The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. (What Is A Cell Biology With Definition) In 1838-39, two German scientists M. Schleiden and T. Schwann
On the basis of composition, cells are of two types:
Primitive cells or prokaryotic cells: This type of cell with simple structure lacks a clear nucleus. In these, the chromosomes formed by DNA are present in the nucleoid of the cytoplasm.
What Cell Biology
What Cell Biology – Fully developed cells or eukaryotic cells: It has a distinct nucleus surrounded by two membranes. These types of cells are not found in viruses, bacteria and blue-green algae. They have more than one number of chromosomes. In these, the respiratory system is located in the mitochondria. Ribosomes are of type 80a. In these, cell division occurs by mitosis and meiosis. Eukaryotic mainly consists of three parts: (A) protoplasm, (B) vacuole, (C) cell wall
The cytoplasm and nucleus are collectively called the cytoplasm.
cell structure and parts of the cell
This membrane controls the entry or exit of substances. It is made up of proteins and lipids.
It is the fluid inside the cell which is transparent and viscous.
In the center of the cell is a nucleus, which is the control center of all cellular activities. The nucleus consists of nucleosome and chromatin. These chromatin are converted into chromosomes during cell division. Chromosomes contain many genes.
The nucleus in the cell was discovered by Robert Brown in 1831.
* Inside the nucleus, a thick semi-liquid matter is filled, which is called nuclear matter. In the nucleus, a network of fine threads is found, (What Is A Cell Biology give Definition) which is called chromatin (network).
The nucleus is made up of DNA and proteins.
* DNA carries genetic traits from one generation to the next.
During cell division, the threads of the chromatin reticulum separate into small rod-like structures called chromosomes.
What Is Cell Biology – All the necessary information for the formation and organization of the cell is stored in the DNA molecule. (What Is A Cell Biology give Definition) The functional segment of DNA is called a gene. What Is Cell Biology) Therefore DNA is called genetic material and gene is called genetic unit. The theory of the cell was propounded, according to which all organisms are made up of cells. Each cell is an independent unit, and all cells work together.
* The smallest cell is PPLO, while the largest cell is the cell of Ostrich’s egg.
The nucleus protects the cell and participates in cell division.
* It generates the cellular RNA required for protein synthesis.
RNA is synthesized in the nucleus.
Nuclear acid polymers are macromolecules (ie large biomolecules) made up of chains of monomeric nucleotides. These molecules serve to carry genetic information, as well as form the structure of cells. Commonly used nuclear acids are DNA or deoxy ribonucleic acid and RNA or ribonucleic acid. (What Is A Cell Biology give Definition) Nuclear acid is always present in living beings, as it is present in all cells and even viruses. Nuclear acid was discovered by Friedrich Mischer.
This reticulum extends into the cytoplasm in the form of vesicles and tubules. Its position is usually between the nuclear membrane and the cytoplasm, but it is often spread throughout the cell. This reticulum is of two types: smooth surfaced and rough surfaced. (the Cell Biology ) Its surface is rough because the particles of ribosome are scattered on it. Many of its functions have been described, such as alternation of matter, intracellular access, proton synthesis, etc.?
It was discovered by Altman in 1886 AD. It is found in the cytoplasm. In this complete oxidation of food takes place, from which the cell gets energy. (the Cell Biology ) Hence it is also called the power house of the cell. 36. Of the molecules that are formed by the breakdown of a glucose molecule, 34. JC is formed in the mitochondria itself.( the Cell Biology)
* Golgi body is a structure of flat membranes. the (Cell Biology) It is called the excretory organ of the cell.
They are found only in photosynthetic plant cells because they are the center of the process of photosynthesis.
These are small sacs surrounded by a single membrane. (the Cell Biology ) Vacuoles contain cell sap, which is made up of water, mineral salts, sugars, pigments and enzymes.
* Vacuoles are found in both plant and animal cell.
The presence of large vacuoles increases the osmotic pressure of the cell.
It is the outer layer of the plasma membrane, usually found in plant cells, and is made of cellulose. It is present in the cells of bacteria and green-blue algae.
Outside the nucleus there are reticulum-like structures called endoplasmic reticulum. (the Cell Biology ) Ribosomes are found along some reticulums, which perform the function of protein synthesis in the cell. (what is cell biology ) Ribosomes are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
the cell has an organelle called lysosome It contains sacs of decomposition enzymes which decompose many substances. It is also called suicide bag. centrosomes
These are found near the nucleus. A special part of them is called the centrosphere, within which a pair of centrioles is found.9 During cell division, these separators determine the nucleus of the cell and in some cells give rise to flagella-like structures.
This organ is named after its inventor, Camillo Golgi, who first discovered it in 1898. (what is cell biology ) This organ is usually found near the nucleus, singly or in groups. (What Is Cell Biology ) It is composed of three elements or components: (what is cell biology ) flat shell, large voids and intent. It looks like a kind of net. Their main function is to secrete cellular and store proteins, fats and certain enzymes.
Difference Between Plant Cell And Animal Cell
plant cell animal cell
Cell wall is present. 1. Cell wall is absent.
In addition to the plasma membrane, it is surrounded by a thick wall. 2. Surrounded only by plasma membrane.
Chloroplasts are very common. 3. There are no chloroplasts.
In place of the centrosome and the centrosome, (what cell biology ) there are two small clear regions. 4. There are centrosomes and star centres.
It is large and fixed in size. 5. It is small and irregular in shape.
specificity of cells
If all the cells in a body are the same and perform the same function, then there will be some functions that any organ will be unable to perform that function. (what cell biology ) Most of these cells are capable of performing only a few functions. (what cell biology ) Each particular function is performed by different groups of cells. (what is cell biology ) These groups are capable of completing a specific task efficiently. Major examples of these are nerve cells, WBCs, RBCs, fat cells, root hairs.